Archaeological testing program
Roads and Maritime carried out an archaeological testing program in 2016, to inform the Strategic Conservation Management Plan for the project. We engaged a team of archaeologists with experience in Aboriginal, historical and maritime archaeology to carry out this work.
The testing program has provided valuable information about both historic and Aboriginal heritage.
The results will be published in a detailed archaeological report and also inform part of the draft Strategic Conservation Management Plan, which will be subject to community and stakeholder consultation before being finalised.
Archaeological program methodologies
The Department of Planning and Environment and the Office of Environment and Heritage approved the following methodologies for the archaeological testing program, before work started.
- Aboriginal Archaeological Research Design and Excavation Methodology
- Historical Archaeological Research Design and Excavation Methodology
- Hawkesbury Region Sand Body Study Research Design
Extension of historic archaeological testing on the northern side of the river
Historical test excavations in the project area on the northern side of the river, are not required under the Minister’s Conditions of Approval for the project. However, upon excavating near the temporary site compound, archaeologists located a coin in the soil. The coin was later identified by an artefact expert as an English halfpenny from 1799.
Due to the relatively early date of the coin, archaeologists examined the land in the project area on the northern side of the river, and, identified one or two possible locations that may be consistent historic buildings. Objects located may have come from rubbish pits associated with the Settler’s Arms Hotel, known to have existed to the north-west of the temporary site compound.
As a result of these findings by our archaeological contractor, and to ensure the testing program is as complete as possible, we expanded the testing program to also include historic archaeological testing on the northern side of the river.
Potential discovery of Hawkesbury Region Sand Body
One of the Minister’s Conditions of Approval for the Project is to prepare a Hawkesbury Region Sand Body Study methodology, in the event that archaeologists find any material from geological periods over 5,000 years ago.
Material from these periods is important as it can contain Aboriginal artefacts that tell us more about early Aboriginal habitation. During recent excavations in Thompson Square, archaeologists discovered what they believe to be a possible Pleistocene sand body (about 10,000 to 1.6million years ago). Archaeologists took samples of the sand for testing and determined it was around 23,000 years old.
After finding this potential sand body, and in line with Minister’s Condition B3(f), Roads and Maritime’s archaeological contractors will now use the prepared methodology, to produce a Hawkesbury Region Sand Body study. The study will be made available once it is finalised.
Archival recording - 3D laser scanning
Part of the testing program requires detailed survey and analysis of the State Heritage listed Thompson Square Conservation Area, existing Windsor Bridge and immediate surrounds using 3D laser scanning.
A team of surveyors, using specialised scanning equipment, has captured the facades of the heritage listed buildings surrounding Thompson Square, the parkland and the existing Windsor Bridge in 3D.
The level of detail and accuracy captured by the 3D scanning process can be seen in some of the images below. This archival recording will be highly valuable in the long-term strategic planning to conserve Windsor’s heritage.
Test pit updates and images
As archaeological excavation work in the project area is now finished, our archaeological contractors are working to prepare a detailed archaeological report and the draft Strategic Conservation Management Plan required for the project.
Some interesting findings from the test pits, now being analysed in the context of the overall testing program, have been:
- Aboriginal artefacts of potentially significant age, which may help to tell historians more about Aboriginal occupation in the area
- Evidence of previous roads dividing Thompson Square into two areas. The road may have been built during construction of the bridge in 1874, and cut by the new road alignment in 1935.
- Historic artefacts throughout the project area, including on the northern side where historic testing was expanded as the program progressed
- Potential discovery of the Hawkesbury Region Sand Body
- Brick footings and postholes relating to the potential existence of former colonial buildings, walls or gates in the project area
- Plant roots, shovel markings and plough marks that could be associated with early cultivation of the area
Archaeologists will be reviewing the test pit results against historical records, maps and plans for the area. The archaeologists will also make recommendations to Roads and Maritime about what activities are required to salvage any archaeological remains identified.
Roads and Maritime will also review the potential construction impacts in the project area, in consultation with the archaeologists, to determine if impacts can be avoided or whether further investigation or any salvage of archaeological material is needed.
The Department of Planning and Environment, in consultation with the Office of Environment and Heritage, will be required to approve any salvage excavation scope, research design and methods recommended.
The results of the testing program, and more detailed analysis, will be published as part of the draft Strategic Conservation Management Plan, which will be subject to community and stakeholder consultation before being finalised.
Please see below for a selection of images from the testing program